Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) have been developed extensively thanks to the inherent merits of both internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs) and battery electric vehicles (BEVs). In HEVs, batteries and electric motors are introduced to help internal combustion engines improve fuel efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Accordingly, HEVs provide opportunities for energy harvesting methods that are suitable for both ICEVs and BEVs. With these energy harvesting methods, more energy can be harvested from HEVs and lower GHG emissions can be achieved. Therefore, energy harvesting methods are investigated in this critical overview and discussed from four perspectives, namely waste heat recovery from exhaust gas, mechanical energy recovery from braking, vibration and/or shock, alternative fuels and renewable energy integration, with emphasis on thermoelectric generators, the organic Rankine cycle, regenerative shock absorbers, regenerative braking and solar roofs. Specifically, the working principles, distinct features, current research, and challenges of various energy harvesting methods in HEVs are discussed. In the conclusion, recommendations for future research are provided. This study provides a comprehensive overview of energy harvesting and emission reduction technologies in HEVs.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Vol. 148
Shengxi Bai, Chunhua Liu
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