Electrochemical energy storage systems are fundamental to renewable energy integration and electrified vehicle penetration. Hybrid electrochemical energy storage systems (HEESSs) are an attractive option because they often exhibit superior performance over the independent use of each constituent energy storage. This article provides an HEESS overview focusing on battery-supercapacitor hybrids, covering different aspects in smart grid and electrified vehicle applications. The primary goal of this paper is to summarize recent research progress and stimulate innovative thoughts for HEESS development. To this end, system configuration, DC/DC converter design and energy management strategy development are covered in great details. The state-of-the-art methods to approach these issues are surveyed, the relationship and technological details in between are also expounded. A case study is presented to demonstrate a framework of integrated sizing formulation and energy management strategy synthesis. The results show that an HEESS with appropriate sizing and enabling energy management can markedly reduce the battery degradation rate by about 40% only at an extra expense of 1/8 of the system cost compared with battery-only energy storage.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Vol. 139 

Lei Zhang, Xiaosong Hu, Zhenpo Wang, Jiageng Ruan, Chengbin Ma, Ziyou Song, David G. Dorrell, Michael G. Pecht

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