Aiming to achieve net-zero operational greenhouse gas emissions at the community level is a valuable endeavor because of synergies and efficiency gains through mixed energy uses, the economy of scale, and a broader range of technological options. Nevertheless, there are several challenges in the planning and design process of the energy infrastructure towards this goal for whole communities. The preponderance of the zero emission concepts at community scale, including unclear definitions of key terms, the availability of supporting tools, and the energy planning approaches could affect the design and decision-making process of stakeholders. In this paper, the state of the art and the state of practice of energy master planning of net-zero emission communities are critically reviewed in order to identify the key research challenges and opportunities to enhance decision-making and hasten their wider adoption. Energy master planning approaches, tools, technologies and decision-making indicators used towards net-zero emission targets are evaluated in selected case studies worldwide. The analysis and research findings show an inconsistency in the scope, definition and approaches in energy master planning of net-zero emission communities. In addition, energy resilience and social metrics and criteria are rarely included in the energy master planning of net-zero emission communities. A conceptual energy master planning framework is proposed that can support performance-based decision-making in the design and planning of net-zero emission communities. A more integrated energy master planning approach and tools, as well as more comprehensive and multi-dimensional assessment metrics, are required for improved and effective decision-making.
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews Vol 137
Saeid Charani Shandiz, Behzad Rismanchi, Greg Foliente,
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